Moral grandstanding is what others have come to call virtue signaling, but Tosi and Warmke (who don’t like that phrase) offer a more thorough examination of the phenomenon – a precise definition, examples of how it manifests, and an analysis of its ethical dimensions.
In a famous 2003 experiment, the philosopher Joshua Knobe showed that people’s judgments about whether the side effect of an action is intentional or not depend on what the side effect is.
Gerald MacCallum doesn’t think that negative and positive liberty are two distinct concepts. He argues instead that there’s only one concept and that it is a mistake to characterize freedom, as Berlin does, as either one of two “dyadic relations” – “freedom from” (negative liberty) and “freedom to” (positive liberty).
It’s hard to find someone who is against liberty, but it’s easy to find disagreement about what the term “liberty” means.
The philosopher G.E. Moore, writing in the early 20th century, criticizes the grounding of moral claims in non-moral observations, which Moore refers to as natural properties.
Ross was a Scottish philosopher who died in 1971. He is well-regarded in the academic institutions which makes it sensible that B and C encountered his seminal text. He attempted to make a sound ethical theory. That is, one that could assist in almost every ethical problem encountered.
The connection between law and morality is complex, and there may be no general rule that captures how the two are related.
Howard Campbell is a fictional character in the Kurt Vonnegut novel, “Mother Night”. This text has its protagonist appear to be a reprehensible soul. An American turned Nazi propagandist who we later find is working as a double agent. His charisma laden speeches are used to inspire der Volker and to provide hidden messages to the American forces. When the story begins Howard Campbell is in an Israeli holding cell – awaiting trial for his crimes as a Nazi. We learn the truth through his story.
If we can learn anything from the past, it’s that democracies can collapse. It happened in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s, and then again after the Soviets began spreading authoritarian communism in the 1940s.
Everyone is capable of committing unethical actions without even realizing what they are doing is unethical.
Hannah Arendt anticipated the destruction of a shared and knowable world: “The point is reached when the audience to which the lies are addressed is forced to disregard altogether the distinguishing line between truth and falsehood in order to be able to survive.”